Phytochemical Screening, Therapeutic Benefits, and Adverse Effects of Citrus aurantifolia - A Review

  • Erika Chriscensia Indonesia International Institute for Life Sciences
  • Elizabeth Chrestella Wibowo Indonesia International Institute for Life Sciences
  • Gregorius Enriko Indonesia International Institute for Life Sciences
  • Owen Chrisfian Wijaya Indonesia International Institute for Life Sciences
  • Agnes Anania Triavika Sahamastuti Indonesia International Institute for Life Sciences
Keywords: Citrus aurantifolia, key lime, Mexican lime, phytochemicals, therapeutic effects, adverse effects

Abstract

Key lime or Citrus aurantifolia has been well known for its functions, either as food or medicine. This fruit has a greenish-yellow color with a sour and bitter taste and distributed initially from East Asia. This review summarizes the phytochemical screening, therapeutic effects, and adverse effects of key lime. Most parts of the plant contain phytochemicals, such as phenols, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, and alkaloids, with other varying compounds like saponin, tannin, anthraquinone, glycosides, and carbohydrates that may be due to the country where the plant is grown, or the extraction methods. Some studies have been conducted to evaluate the therapeutic effects of key lime, including antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer or antitumor, anti-cholesterol, anti-larvae, anti-mosquito, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and anticholinesterase. Key lime also may cause some adverse effects, such as phytophotodermatitis. It may lead to toxicity manifested in conditions such as edema, inflammation, or necrosis in some organs in the body, an increase in lymphocytes & liver enzymes, and a decrease in hemoglobin.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Erika Chriscensia, Indonesia International Institute for Life Sciences

Student of pharmacy study program

Elizabeth Chrestella Wibowo, Indonesia International Institute for Life Sciences

Student of pharmacy study program

Gregorius Enriko, Indonesia International Institute for Life Sciences

Student of pharmacy study program

Owen Chrisfian Wijaya, Indonesia International Institute for Life Sciences

Student of pharmacy study program

References

Abugroun, A., Gaznabi, S., Natarajan, A., & Daoud, H. (2019). Lime-induced phytophotodermatitis. Oxford Medical Case Reports,2019(11), 470-472. doi:10.1093/omcr/omz113
Adokoh, C. K., Asante, D. B., Acheampong, D. O., Kotsuchibashi, Y., Armah, F. A., Sirikyi, I. H., Kimura, K., Gmakame, E., & Abdul-Rauf, S. (2019). Chemical profile and in vivo toxicity evaluation of unripe Citrus aurantifolia essential oil. Toxicology reports, 6, 692–702. doi:10.1016/j.toxrep.2019.06.020
Adrianto, H. (2018). Evaluasi Toksisitas Ekstrak Metanol Daun Jeruk Nipis (Citrus aurantifolia) terhadap Kematian Larva Nyamuk Aedes aegypti. ASPIRATOR - Journal of Vector-borne Disease Studies, 10(1), 57-64. doi:10.22435/asp.v10i1.155
Aguilar-Hernández MG, Sánchez-Bravo P, Hernández F, Carbonell-Barrachina ÁA, Pastor-Pérez JJ, Legua P. Determination of the Volatile Profile of Lemon Peel Oils as Affected by Rootstock. Foods. 2020;9(2):241. Published 2020 Feb 24. doi:10.3390/foods9020241
Al-Aamri, M. S., Al-Abousi, N. M., Al-Jabri, S. S., Alam, T., & Khan, S. A. (2018). Chemical composition and in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Citrus aurantifolia L. leaves grown in eastern Oman. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences, 13(2), 108-112. doi:10.1016/j.jtumed.2017.12.002
Al Namani, J., Baqir, E., Al Abri, A., Al Hubaishi, T., Husain, A., & KHAN, S. A. (2018). Phytochemical screening, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Citrus aurantifolia L. Leaves grown in two regions of Oman. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 14(1), 27-34. doi:10.22034/IJPS.2018.32046
Amorim, J. L., Simas, D. L. R., Pinheiro, M. M. G., Moreno, D. S. A., Alviano, C. S., da Silva, A. J. R., & Dias Fernandes, P. (2016). Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oils of Four Citrus Species. PLOS ONE, 11(4), e0153643. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153643
Berlian, Z., Fatiqin, A., & Agustina, E. (2016). Penggunaan Perasan Jeruk Nipis (Citrus aurantifolia) dalam Menghambat Bakteri Escherichia coli pada Bahan Pangan. Jurnal Bioilmi, 2(1), 51-58. Retrieved from http://jurnal.radenfatah.ac.id/index.php/bioilmi/article/view/1139/957
Boshtam, M., Asgary, S., Moshtaghian, J., Naderi, G., & Jafari-Dinani, N. (2013). Impacts of fresh lime juice and peel on atherosclerosis progression in an animal model. ARYA atherosclerosis, 9(6), 357–362.
CABI. (2019). Citrus aurantifolia (lime). Retrieved 26 May 2020, from https://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/13438.
Chi, P. T., Van Hung, P., Le Thanh, H., & Phi, N. T. (2019). Valorization of citrus leaves: Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of essential oils. Waste and Biomass Valorization. doi:10.1007/s12649-019-00815-6
Conner, T. S., Brookie, K. L., Carr, A. C., Mainvil, L. A., & Vissers, M. C. (2017). Let them eat fruit! The effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on psychological well-being in young adults: A randomized controlled trial. PloS one, 12(2), e0171206. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0171206
Cyndi, B., Andriane, Y., & Nur, I. M. (2016). Pengaruh Pemberian Ekstrak Etanol Daun Jeruk Nipis (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) terhadap Penurunan Kadar Kolesterol Total Darah pada Mencit Model Hiperkolesterolemia. Prosiding Pendidikan Dokter, 2(2), 911-918. Retrieved from http://karyailmiah.unisba.ac.id/index.php/dokter/article/view/4882/pdf
Gibb A. J. (2017). Choline and acetylcholine: what a difference an acetate makes!. The Journal of Physiology, 595(4), 1021–1022. doi:10.1113/JP273666
Hamidah, & Adrianto, H. (2017). Toxicity of Citrus mitis, Citrus aurantifolia, and Citrus maxima leaf extract toward mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). KnE Life Sciences, 3(6), 41. doi:10.18502/kls.v3i6.1105
Hankinson, A., Lloyd, B., & Alweis, R. (2014). Lime-induced phytophotodermatitis. Journal of community hospital internal medicine perspectives, 4(4), 25090. doi:10.3402/jchimp.v4.25090
J Esparza-Martínez, F., García, S. P., Miranda-López, R., & Peña-Caballero, V. (2019). Inhibition of proliferation of colorectal cancer cells by phenolic extracts of Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia) fruit waste. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 7(8), 560-567. doi:10.12691/jfnr-7-8-2
Jasiecki, & Wasąg. (2019). Butyrylcholinesterase Protein Ends in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease—Could BCHE Genotyping Be Helpful in Alzheimer’s Therapy? Biomolecules, 9(10), 592. doi:10.3390/biom9100592
Jeffrey, J., Satari, M. H., Kurnia, D., & Sudigdoadi, S. (2020). Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans Growth Induced by the Extract of Citrus Aurantifolia Peel. Journal of International Dental and Medical Research, 13(1), 122-127. Retrieved from http://www.jidmr.com/journal/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/22.D19_890_Jeffrey_Jeffrey_Indonesia-19.pdf
Khan, M., Al-Yahyai, R., & Al-Yahyai, F. (2017). The Lime: Botany, Production, and Uses. CAB International. ISBN 9781780647845
Khodabakhsh, P., Shafaroodi, H. & Asgarpanah, J. (2015). Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Citrus aurantium L. blossoms essential oil (neroli): involvement of the nitric oxide/cyclic-guanosine monophosphate pathway. J Nat Med 69, 324–331. doi:10.1007/s11418-015-0896-6
Lawin, I. F., Lalèyè, F. O. A., Agbani, O. P., & Assogbadjo, A. E. (2015). Ethnobotanical assessment of the plant species used in the treatment of diabetes in the Sudano-Guinean zone of Benin. Journal of Animal &Plant Sciences, 26(3), 4108-4123.
Lee, S., Park, S., Kim, M., Cho, E., Jun, C., Park, C., Kim, H., Choi, S., Rew, J. (2018). Key lime (Citrus aurantifolia) inhibits the growth of triple drug-resistant Helicobacter pylori. Gut Pathogens, 10(1). doi:10.1186/s13099-018-0244-y
Lemes, R., Alves, C., Estevam, E., Santiago, M., Martins, C., & Santos, T. et al. (2018). Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from Citrus aurantifolia leaves and fruit peel against oral pathogenic bacteria. Anais Da Academia Brasileira De Ciências, 90(2), 1285-1292. doi:10.1590/0001-3765201820170847
Lin, L. Y., Chuang, C. H., Chen, H. C., & Yang, K. M. (2019). Lime (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle) Essential Oils: Volatile Compounds, Antioxidant Capacity, and Hypolipidemic Effect. Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 8(9), 398. doi:10.3390/foods8090398
Loizzo, M. R., Tundis, R., Bonesi, M., Menichini, F., De Luca, D., Colica, C., & Menichini, F. (2012). Evaluation of Citrus aurantifolia peels and leaves extracts for their chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase activities. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 92(15), 2960–2967. doi:10.1002/jsfa.5708
M`, P., Ck, R., V, K., Parveen, S., & L, N. S. (2017). Quantitative phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activities of some citrus fruits of South India. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 10(12), 198. doi:10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i12.20912
Mehl F, Marti G, Boccard J, Debrus B, Merle P, Delort E, et al. (2014) Differentiation of lemon essential oil based on volatile and non-volatile fractions with various analytical techniques: a metabolomic approach. Food Chem. 143: 325–335. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.07.125 PMID: 24054247
Muniandy, P. D., Riswari, S. F., & Ruchiatan, K. (2020). Larvicidal Activity of Citrus aurantifolia Decoction against Aedes aegypti Larvae. Althea Medical Journal, 7(1), 35-39.
Namania, J. A., Baqira, E., Abria, A. A., Hubaishia, T. A., Husainb, A., & Khan, S. A. (2018). Phytochemical Screening, Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Citrus aurantifolia L. Leaves Grown in Two Regions of Oman. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 14(1), 27-34. Retrieved from http://www.ijps.ir/article_32046_debfb8386e360b840992b8e33e8a9cee.pdf
Oikeh, E. I., Omoregie, E. S., Oviasogie, F. E., & Oriakhi, K. (2015). Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Food science & nutrition, 4(1), 103–109. doi:10.1002/fsn3.268
Okunlola, B. M., Ijah, U. J., Yisa, J., & Abioye, O. P. (2019). Phytochemicals and Phyto-disinfectant properties of citrus species (Citrus limon, Citrus aurantifolia, and Citrus sinensis) for pond water purification. GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 8(2), 34-44. doi:10.30574/gscbps.2019.8.2.0139
Parama, P.W., Sukrama, I.D.M., Handoko, S.A. (2019). Uji efektivitas antibakteri ekstrak buah jeruk nipis (Citrus aurantifolia) terhadap pertumbuhan Streptococcus mutans in vitro. Bali Dental Journal 3(1): 45-52
Patil, J. R., Chidambara Murthy, K. N., Jayaprakasha, G. K., Chetti, M. B., & Patil, B. S. (2009). Bioactive Compounds from Mexican Lime (Citrus aurantifolia) Juice Induce Apoptosis in Human Pancreatic Cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57(22), 10933–10942. doi:10.1021/jf901718u
Rafieian-Kopaei, M., Setorki, M., Doudi, M., Baradaran, A., & Nasri, H. (2014). Atherosclerosis: process, indicators, risk factors, and new hopes. International journal of preventive medicine, 5(8), 927–946.
Sarma, R., Adhikari, K., Mahanta, S., & Khanikor, B. (2019). Insecticidal activities of citrus aurantifolia essential oil against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Toxicology Reports, 6, 1091-1096. doi:10.1016/j.toxrep.2019.10.009
Şeker Karatoprak, G., Yücel Aşık, Ç., Çakır, A., & Köngül Şafak, E. (2020). In vitro pharmacological screening of antioxidant, cytotoxic, and enzyme inhibitory activities of citrus aurantifolia Linn. Dried fruit extract. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 1-10. doi:10.1080/09603123.2020.1714558
WHO. (2019, July 12). Cancer. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/health-topics/cancer#tab=tab_1
Zhao, Y., Sun, H., Ma, L., & Liu, A. (2017). Polysaccharides from the peels of Citrus aurantifolia induce apoptosis in transplanted H22 cells in mice. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 101, 680-689. doi:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2017.03.149
Published
2020-09-30